Evaluation of early retinal vascular changes by optical coherence tomography angiography in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus without diabetic retinopathy
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CitationKoca, S. B., Akdogan, M., & Koca, S. (2022). Evaluation of early retinal vascular changes by optical coherence tomography angiography in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus without diabetic retinopathy. International Ophthalmology, 42(2), 423-433.
Purpose To evaluate macular and peripapillary vascular changes by optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) without diabetic retinopathy (DR). Methods This study included 46 patients with T1DM and 46 age-sex matched healthy subjects. All participants were evaluated in terms of macular and optic disk parameters by using AngioVue. Foveal avascular zone (FAZ) area, macular and optic disk vessel density (VD) were analyzed. The correlation of these parameters with metabolic factors such as disease duration, mean hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) standard deviation score (SDS), homocysteine (Hcy) level, body mass index (BMI) SDS and daily insulin dose was also investigated in T1DM group. Results No significant difference was found in FAZ area and optic disk radial peripapillary capillary (RPC) VD comparing diabetic and control groups. In all macular regions, VD was significantly lower in T1DM versus control group both in superficial capillary plexus (SCP) and deep capillary plexus (DCP). None of the metabolic parameters was correlated with FAZ area and optic disk RPC-VD. Vascular density in SCP was negatively correlated with mean HbA1c and positively correlated with IGF-1 SDS. Homocysteine level was negatively correlated with DCP-VD in all areas. Conclusion In children with T1DM without clinically apparent DR, VD in SCP and DCP was decreased and OCTA is a valuable imaging technique for detecting early vascular changes. The metabolic parameters such as mean HbA1c, IGF-1 SDS and Hcy affect the macular VD in diabetic children.