Phytochemical Composition, Antioxidant, and Enzyme Inhibition Activities of Methanolic Extracts of Two Endemic Onosma Species
Şahinler, Saliha Şeyma
Sarıkürkçü, Rabia Büşra
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CitationSaravanakumar, K., Sarikurkcu, C., Sahinler, S. S., Sarikurkcu, R. B., & Wang, M. H. (2021). Phytochemical Composition, Antioxidant, and Enzyme Inhibition Activities of Methanolic Extracts of Two Endemic Onosma Species. Plants, 10(7), 1373.
Onosma species have been used as a dye for hundreds of years due to their dark red pigments. These species have also been used by mankind in the treatment of various diseases since ancient times. This work analyzed the phytochemical composition in methanol extract of two endemic Onosma species (O. lycaonica and O. papillosa). Methanolic extract of these species varied in the content of flavonoids and phenolics. The flavonoids were found higher in O. papillosa [32.9 ± 0.3 mg QEs (quercetin equivalent)/g extracts] while the phenolics were higher in O. lycaonica [43.5 ± 1.5 mg GAEs (gallic acid equivalent)/g extracts]. ESI-MS/MS (electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry) revealed the presence of 25 compounds in O. lycaonica and 24 compounds in O. papillosa. The former was richer than the latter for apigenin, luteolin, eriodictyol, pinoresinol, apigenin 7-glucoside, rosmarinic acid, luteolin 7-glucoside, ferulic acid, vanillin, caffeic acid, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, (+)- catechin3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid. The O. papillosa exhibited low EC50 (1.90 ± 0.07 mg/mL) which indicated its strong phosphomolybdenum scavenging activity as compared to O. lycaonica. However, the O. lycaonica showed low IC50 or EC50 for 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,20 -azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS+), cupric reducing antioxidant power (CUPRAC), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and ferrous ion chelating activity, as compared to O. papillosa. The results proved the presence of potent antioxidant compounds in O. lycaonica. Further, the plant extracts significantly varied for enzyme inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), but the plant extracts did not significantly differ for inhibition of αglucosidase, α-amylase, and tyrosinase. Onosma species deserve further research towards developing novel drugs to treat oxidative diseases.