Metal concentration and health risk assessment of wild mushrooms collected from the Black Sea region of Turkey
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Mushrooms are rich sources of organic nutrients (especially proteins). However, they can excessively accumulate metals in their fruiting bodies that pose a risk to human health. The aim of this study was the determination of Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn contents, daily intake, and health risk index values of some mushroom species collected from the eastern Black Sea region of Turkey (Arsin, Trabzon). The samples were collected from hazelnut gardens that are free from industrial pollution and have a low population density. As a result of elemental analysis, it was determined that the concentration ranges of Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn in the mushrooms were as follows: 0.29-9.11, 0.04-3.70, 0.01-8.29, 0.18-20.82, 3.1-79.8, 5.2-673.0, 14.9-752.0, 63.0-7769.0 mg/kg dry weight. Daily intakes of all the elements were found to be below the reference dose in Fistulina hepatica, Hydnum repandum, Macrolepiota procera, and Tapinella atrotomentosa. Amanita caesarea, Agrocybe praecox, Amanita vaginata, Cantharellus cibarius, Craterellus cornucopioides, Daedalea quercina, Gymnopus dryophilus, Ganoderma lucidum, and Infundibulicybe gibba were found to have high risk index values especially with respect to Cd, Co, and Pb. According to Pearson correlation analysis, the correlations between Fe-Mn (0.840, p < 0.01) and Pb-Ni (0.7540, p < 0.01) couples are significant.