Metal concentration and health risk assessment of fifteen wild mushrooms collected from the Ankara University Campus (Turkey)
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The aim of this study is to analyze Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Co, Cd, Pb, and Ni contents of Cyclocybe cylindracea, Armillaria mellea, Bjerkandera adusta, Rheubarbariboletus armeniacus, Coprinellus disseminatus, C. micaceus, C. comatus, Inonotus hispidus, Lepista nuda, Leucoagaricus leucothites, Pleurotus ostreatus, Cerioporus squamosus, Schizophyllum commune, Scleroderma verrucosum, and Trametes trogii collected from the Ankara University Besevler 10th Year Campus (Turkey), an area where human settlement and traffic are intense. In addition to the elemental analysis, the daily intake of metal (DIM) and health risk index (HRI) values of the edible ones were also calculated. Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Co, Cd, Pb, and Ni concentrations of the samples were found to be 112.0-5079.0, 3.0-124.0, 4.0-77.0, 2.0-196.0, 0.18-2.98, 0.18-5.3, 0.04-10.98, and 0.22-8.23 mg/kg dry weight, respectively. As a result of DIM and HRI analysis, C. cylindracea, L. nuda, and C. squamosus were found to be within the reference dose limits determined by competent authorities and can be safely consumed in terms of all metals studied. However, the Cd, Co, and Fe contents of C. micaceus were found to be above 1.0 (1.06, 4.25, and 7.06, respectively). In addition, it has been found that A. mellea, R. armeniacus, C. comatus, L. leucothites, and P. ostreatus are toxic in terms of Cd/Co, Fe/Pb, Co/Fe, Cd, and Fe contents, respectively. As the area in question is a traffic intensive area, it has been concluded that the emissions of the vehicles should be controlled in terms of legal limits and that the consumption of some mushrooms in this region should not be preferred until necessary measures are taken.