Polyphenol Profile and Biological Activity Comparisons of Different Parts of Astragalus macrocephalus subsp. finitimus from Turkey
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The members of the genusAstragalushave great interest as traditional drugs in several folk systems including Turkey. In this sense, the present paper was aimed to explore the biological properties and chemical profiles of different parts (aerial parts, leaves, flowers, stems, and roots) ofA. macrocephalussubsp.finitimus. Antioxidant (radical quenching, reducing power, and metal chelating) and enzyme inhibitory (alpha-amylase and tyrosinase) effects were investigated for biological properties. Regarding chemical profiles, individual phenolic compounds were detected by LC-MS, as well as total amounts. The leaves extract exhibited the strongest antioxidant abilities when compared with other parts. However, flowers extract had the best metal chelating ability. Hyperoside, apigenin, p-coumaric, and ferulic acids were identified as main compounds in the tested parts. Regarding enzyme inhibitory properties, tyrosinase inhibitory effects varied from IC50: 1.02 to 1.41 mg/mL. In addition, the best amylase inhibition effect was observed by leaves (3.36 mg/mL), followed by aerial parts, roots, stems, and flowers. As a result, from multivariate analysis, the tested parts were classified in three cluster. Summing up the results, it can be concluded thatA. macrocephalussubsp.finitimuscould be a precious source of natural bioactive agents in pharmaceutical, nutraceutical, and cosmeceutical applications.