Impact of Bisphenol A on neural tube development in 48-hr chicken embryos
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Objectives Bisphenol A (BPA) is one of the most heavily produced chemicals in the world. BPA is involved in the production of many substances such as cosmetics, various foodstuffs, toys, personal care products, detergents and plastic bottles all that are frequently used in daily life. Depending on BPA exposure, sexual maturation and reproductive function, and bone and brain development are adversely affected. The aim of this study is to investigate the possible effects of BPA on the development of the nervous system and neural tube in 48-hr chicken embryos. Methods Thirty specific pathogen-free (SPF) fertilized eggs were used in the study. SPF eggs were placed in the incubator and divided into three groups at 28 hr of incubation; control, BPA 1 and BPA 2 (10 eggs in each group). At this stage of incubation, two different doses of BPA were injected sub-blastodermically with the Hamilton microinjector. At the end of 48 hr of incubation, all eggs were opened and embryos were dissected and separated from the embryonic membrane. All embryos were evaluated morphologically and histopathologically. Results As the BPA dose increased, delays in the development of the nervous system and midline closure increased in the early period of chicken embryos. Depending on the dose, it was found that the embryo's crown-rump length and somite number decreased (p < .05). Conclusion It was determined that BPA application on early chicken embryos adversely affected neural tube development. It was also found to delay midline closure.