Phthalocyanine Modified Electrodes in Electrochemical Analysis
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Phthalocyanines are aromatic or macrocyclic organic compounds and attract great attention due to their numerous properties. They have many high-tech applications in different areas of the industry such as dyestuffs, thermal printing screens, photovoltaic solar cells, membrane catalytic reactors, semiconductor materials and gas sensors. In the last decade, electrochemical sensor studies have accelerated with the catalytic lighting. It plays a dominant role in the development and implementation of new generation sensors. The aim of this study is to review the electrochemical methods based on electrode modification with phthalocyanines and to shed light on new application areas of phthalocyanines. The focal point was based on the sensor applications of phthalocyanines in the determination of drugs, pesticides, organic materials and metals etc. by electrochemical methods. Experimental conditions and some validation parameters of the sensor applications such as metal phthalocyanine types, indicator electrodes, selectivity, working ranges, detection limits, and analytical applications were discussed. Consequently, this is the first review dealing with the applications of phthalocyanines in electrochemical sensors for the sensitive determination of analytes in a variety of matrices.