Anthemis chia: Biological capacity and phytochemistry
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Anthemis species are also of great importance in the cosmetics and pharmaceutical industries. In this study, phytochemical compositions, antioxidant and enzyme inhibitory activities of ethyl acetate (EtOAc), methanol (MeOH) and water extracts obtained from Anthemis chia L. flowers were investigated. The total phenolic and flavonoid compound analysis revealed that the richest one in terms of these compounds was the MeOH extract [65.22 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAEs)/g extract and 73.32 mg quercetin equivalents (QEs)/g extract, respectively]. As a result of liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) analysis, it was determined that the main components of the extracts were chlorogenic acid, protocatechuic acid, hyperoside, caffeic acid, apigenin 7-glucoside and luteolin 7-glucoside. Except for the ferrous ion chelating assay, all other antioxidant activity tests resulted in the superiority of the MeOH extract. As a result of the relative antioxidant capacity index (RACI) analysis (including total phenolic and flavonoid compound contents) performed in order to compare the data obtained from antioxidant activity tests, it was confirmed that the antioxidant activity potential of MeOH extract was higher than other extracts. The activity values of this extract in the phosphomolybdenum, cupric reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) assays were determined to be 350.36, 655.18, 435.78, 265.33 and 325.25 mg trolox equivalents (TEs)/g extract, respectively. In addition to the total phenolic and flavonoid contents of the extracts, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, hyperoside and apigenin 7-glucoside are also thought to contribute to antioxidant activity. MeOH extract also exhibited the highest activity in alpha-amylase and tyrosinase inhibitory activity tests. alpha-Amylase and tyrosinase inhibitor activity of the MeOH extract was measured as 413.66 mg acarbose equivalents (ACEs)/g extract and 290.22 mg kojic acid equivalents (KAEs)/g extract, respectively. Flavonoids seem to contribute more to enzyme inhibitory activity than phenolics. However, caffeic acid is also thought to contribute significantly to the tyrosinase inhibitory activity. As a result, it was concluded that A. chia flowers could be used as an alternative antioxidant, skin whitening and anti-diabetic agent in the food, cosmetic and medical industries.