Temperature and time variations during apical resection
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Objective The aim of this study was to investigate temperature and time variations during root-end resection. Material and methods Sixty human premolars were selected. The root canals were enlarged up to ProTaper X3 rotary instrument. A thermocouple was placed into the root canal 1 mm behind the resection line. The teeth were randomly divided into six groups according to the apical resection method: steel bur, tungsten carbide bur, Lindeman bur, diamond bur, laser and ultrasonic surgical piezo with a diamond tip. The root ends were resected 3 mm away from the root apex. The temperature of the root dentine during resection was recorded as maximum temperature, mean temperature and temperature change. The time required for apicectomy was recorded for each group. The Kruskal-Wallis method was used to analyse the differences between temperature changes during apical resections. The significance level was set at 5%. Results There was no significant difference between bur groups in terms of temperature increase. The maximum temperature in piezo surgery was significantly higher than the Lindeman, tungsten and steel burs (p < .001). In addition, the maximum temperature in laser surgery was higher than the Lindeman bur (p < .05). An increase in the temperature was mostly seen in piezo surgery and the least temperature change occurred in the Lindeman bur. Mean time stayed under 1 min in each group. Conclusions Although piezo caused the highest temperature increase, the measured temperature increase was within physiological limits in all tested techniques.