Ziziphora taurica subsp. Taurica: Analytical characterization and biological activities
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The Lamiaceae family comprises many flowering plants classified into about 236 genera. The genus Ziziphora is one of the well-known genera of this family and its species are important in different fields of pharmaceutical, chemical, traditional, and folk medicines. The phytochemicals present in Ziziphora include monoterpenic essential oils, triterpenes, and phenolic substances. The aim of this paper was to study the phytochemical profile of Ziziphora taurica subsp. taurica and compare and evaluate the biological activities of its ethyl acetate (ZTT-EtOAc), methanolic (ZTT-MeOH), and aqueous (ZTT-W) extracts based on their enzyme inhibition and antioxidant capacities. Determination of total phenolic (TPC) and total flavonoid (TFC) contents as well as biological activities were determined using spectrophotometric procedures. Subsequently, the individual phenolic compounds were detected by liquid chromatography–electrospray ionization–tandem mass spectrometry (LC–ESI–MS/MS). In total, twenty-two different phenolic compounds were identified, including apigenin, ferulic acid, and luteolin which were the most common. ZTT-MeOH extract showed the best antioxidant activity, whereas ZTT-EtOAc extract was the most effective against tyrosinase and ?-amylase. Ziziphora taurica subsp. taurica represents a potential source of natural compounds with positive effects on human health. © 2019 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.